I would like to use GitLab CI in order to be able to separate rebuilding a Jekyll site from deploying the static web pages to a production web server. I know that I can deploy a Jekyll project to Heroku using a buildpack to build the static site remotely; however, that seems wasteful to me compared to merely deploying the resulting static site into production. Since I don't know how to use GitLab CI, I'd like to explore what it does. I most definitely do not want to use my Jekyll project to learn the basics, since this adds moving parts that I don't thoroughly understand. Instead, I'd rather do something closer to writing learning tests, in order to limit the unknowns.
I'm following the instructions at https://docs.gitlab.com/ce/ci/quick_start/README.html.
.gitlab-ci.ymlto the root of the project. This file includes the instructions for GitLab to run. I assume that this works like a Git
- Configure a GitLab Runner, which seems to require Go (according to what I've read), which makes me nervous, because I don't want to adopt too many dependencies.
I want the GitLab CI configuration file to do the equivalent of saying "Hello, world", so that I can simply verify that it runs. I also want to use a dead-simple project with nothing special in it, so that I can poke around, run manual tests, without fear of injuring anything significant.
So, I did the following:
$ cd $WORKSPACES_ROOT # Where I put projects on my file system $ git init learn-gitlab-ci
This creates a new project, initializing a Git repository inside it. Next, I go to https://gitlab.com to create a repository there for this project, so that I can push to it. In my case, I ended up with a remote repository at
$ export PROJECT_ROOT="$WORKSPACES_ROOT/learn-gitlab-ci" $ cd $PROJECT_ROOT $ git remote add gitlab email@example.com:jbrains/learn-gitlab-ci.git $ git remote -v gitlab firstname.lastname@example.org:jbrains/learn-gitlab-ci.git (fetch) gitlab email@example.com:jbrains/learn-gitlab-ci.git (push)
Now I'm ready to add content to this project, so I start with the GitLab CI configuration file.
$ cd $PROJECT_ROOT $ mvim .gitlab-ci.yml
# The new content of .gitlab-ci.yml before_script: - echo "This runs before the build jobs." build_job_1: - echo "This is the first build job." build_job_2: - echo "This is the second build job."
This gives me something to commit, push, and wonder where in the universe
echo echoes text to.
$ cd $PROJECT_ROOT $ git add -A $ git commit -m "Trying to detect the basic GitLab CI job lifecycle." $ git push gitlab master
After pushing these changes to GitLab, I go to the GitLab project at https://gitlab.com to find the Pipelines page for the project. Conveniently, I find the Pipelines page at https://gitlab.com/jbrains/learn-gitlab-ci/pipelines. Before I get there, I find out by email that my pipeline has failed.
On the pipelines page, I see a message showing that the pipeline has failed for the reason "yaml invalid". Weird, because the YAML syntax looked correct to me. Conveniently, at the Pipelines page, I see a button labeled "CI Lint", which, if I press, should give me some useful feedback about the syntax of my GitLab CI configuration file… so I press it.
Curiously, when I press "CI Lint", I end up at a page which threatens to let me edit my GitLab CI configuration file, except that the editor has no content, which makes me wonder whether, somehow, I failed to put the file in the right place. Perhaps it has the wrong name? Perhaps something else weird has gone wrong? I don't get it.
This is one of the many reasons that I decided not to try this with my Jekyll project. At least now, I don't feel tempted to become distracted by wondering if Jekyll somehow relates to the problem.
Strange. The file
$PROJECT_ROOT/.gitlab-ci.yml appears in the Files section of my GitLab repository. It has the content that I expect. That content looks like valid YAML. I have no idea how this could fail.
OK. Maybe I need to paste the GitLab CI configuration YAML into this text editor in order to check it. I try that. Sure enough, when I press "validate", I see the same error message: jobs:build_job_1 config should be a hash.
Aha! Looking more closely, I misread the sample GitLab CI configuration file. The build jobs need to be a hash, and I've made them a list. I try to fix the build job accordingly.
# .gitlab-ci.yml before_script: - echo "This runs before the build jobs." build_job_1: script: - echo "This is the first build job." build_job_2: script: - echo "This is the second build job."
To test this, I need to commit, then push.
$ cd $PROJECT_ROOT $ git add -A $ git commit -m "The GitLab CI configuration file now specific build job scripts correctly, as far as I can tell." $ git push gitlab master
I browse to the GitLab project's Pipelines page again and see success! Well… success so far. The two build jobs
build_job_2 are running, which surprises me a little, since I made them very, very short jobs.
No matter. While I'm waiting for the jobs to complete, I go back to the "CI Lint" page, paste the new contents of the GitLab CI configuration file, then validate the file. Looking at the output, I learn the following:
- The syntax is correct.
I can expect the
before_scriptto run before each build job, much like
@Beforein JUnit. I should therefore make sure that
before_scriptdoes something idempotent.
I can specify
on_successfor each build job, which I presume runs some commands when the build job succeeds. This gives me something to look up so that I learn more details about the contract with GitLab CI.
While I learned these things, my build jobs finished. They took over two minutes to run, they succeeded, and when I click on each job, I see both the source commands (the
echo command) and the output (the echoed text itself). This makes me feel very good about exploring the build job and pipeline lifecycle in more detail.
I also notice in the output that GitLab CI is using
docker with Ruby image 2.1. Can I choose the Ruby version that GitLab CI uses to run our build jobs? I'll have to look that up. This also gives me hope that we don't need to install
go and all that nonsense, because GitLab does that for us. (That makes perfect sense.)
As I read more, it seems that as long GitLab's default shared CI runners do what I need, then I can use them and not worry about installing runners myself. I'd like to see how far I can go with that.
What Else Can I Do?
In order to learn more about the options in GitLab CI configuration, I look at examples at https://docs.gitlab.com/ce/ci/examples/README.html.
While poking around, I found that I can specify a Docker image which would have a specific Ruby version installed, so that I could run Jekyll in a controlled environment. I do not have the energy to create a Docker image right now, so I hope that I can just use something simpler. While poking around some more (at https://gitlab.com/help/ci/yaml/README.md), I find that I can specify a built-in image for Ruby 2.1. Maybe I can do the same for Ruby 2.3.3, since I'm using that version of Ruby locally.
Try Running Build Jobs with Ruby 2.3.3
$ cd $PROJECT_ROOT $ git checkout -b try-specifying-ruby-version $ mvim .gitlab-ci.yml
I changed the GitLab CI configuration file in what amounts to a manual microtest. It specifies the Ruby 2.3.3 image and has a single job that merely echoes the Ruby version. I did this on a separate branch to make it easier to switch back to a GitLab CI configuration file that I expect to work.
image: ruby:2.3.3 check_ruby_version: script: - ruby --version
Now, I commit and push to the remote repository, wondering whether GitLab CI launches a build on every branch, or merely on receiving something to
$ git add -A $ git commit -m "We try to run a build job on Ruby 2.3.3." $ git push --all gitlab
Now, I go back to the Pipelines page on GitLab to see what happens, if anything. I see a running pipeline, so GitLab CI runs when it receives a push to any branch, and not only
Since I have to stop this working session and do something else, let me summarize where we are.
Adding a GitLab CI configuration file called
.gitlab-ci.ymlto the root of a Git repository activates GitLab CI on that project using the so-called "shared runners".
- I've chosen to ignore the details of shared runners for now, since whatever magic they perform now suffices so far.
I can specify multiple, parallel—and therefore independent and isolated—build jobs, each as a hash with an entry for the key
scriptthat maps to a sequence of bash (or bash-like) commands that perform the job.
I can specify a single
before_scriptscript that GitLab CI runs before each build job. This script should probably be idempotent and self-contained, because multiple copies of it might run independently.
- I can specify a Docker image to simplify setting up the build job runtime environment, such as with a specific version of Ruby.
GitLab CI runs no matter which branch I push to, so
masterappears not to have any privileged meaning in this regard.
While talking to Sarah about this, we tried to trigger a GitLab CI build by editing a file directly at https://gitlab.com.
- Go to the project at https://gitlab.com/jbrains/learn-gitlab-ci.
- Go to a branch and choose a file. (I only have my GitLab CI configuration file, so I had more of a Hobson's Choice.)
- Edit the file. I changed the Ruby image to version 2.2.
- Commit the change to a new branch, only because I wanted to keep each manual microtest on a separate branch. This created a merge request, but I actually don't want to merge this into any existing branch, so I simply went back to the project page.
Open the Pipelines page and see a new build job running on the new branch. It installed a GitLab CI runner installing Ruby 2.2, and sure enough, it installed
This means that when we change a file at the GitLab web site, we create a new commit for the project and this triggers a build, just as though we had pushed that change from a different repository. Good news: we can immediately build each time an individual file changes; bad news: we are forced to immediately build each time an individual file changes. Whether this helps or doesn't depends on one's preferences.
Pushing To A Remote Repository
In order to securely push to a remote
git repository, I need a way to provide credentials to the remote repository in the little Docker container that GitLab CI uses to run my build jobs. Right off the top of my head, I can envision a few ways to make this work.
- The remote repository provider gives me an authorization token that I can use to push to the remote repository.
- I add an SSH key to the remote repository and bundle that key in the local repository.
- I build a custom GitLab CI runner (a Docker container, as far as I can tell so far) that bundles the authorization rights (SSH key, token, whatever) to the remote repository.
I would really like to avoid the Docker-based solution, because I don't know Docker well enough to make that work, and I don't particularly want to learn that today. I can live with, but would prefer not to use the authorization token solution, because then my pipeline depends on knowing details about the deployment destination, more than simply "a
git repository at this address". I don't know how to bundle an SSH key in my local repository, because I usually use the default location of SSH keys (
$HOME/.ssh). No matter what I choose, I'm not going to like it.
In this situation, unless someone gives me a more suitable idea, I'll opt for the solution that requires the least obtrusive work, at least for now. I know that I first want to push to a Heroku repository, so I can start by exploring how to push to a Heroku repository with a token instead of an SSH key.
Pushing To A Heroku Repository Without An SSH Key
I'd like to try this without going through GitLab CI, since doing that slows down my feedback cycle. I think I can get this working first using my local environment, and then try to replicate it in a GitLab CI pipeline build job. Certainly, if I can't get it working locally, then I don't have a chance of getting it to work in GitLab CI.
I need to create a Heroku app, ask Heroku to generate some kind of authorization token that lets me push to that app, don't set up an SSH key that lets me push to that app, then use the token to push to that app from a local
git repository. My first test can consist of creating the Heroku app, and then verifying that I can't push to it, even with the SSH key that is configured for my Heroku account. I don't know whether this is even possible. I would hate to accidentally have authorization to push to this Heroku app, since I definitely wouldn't have that in my GitLab CI environment.
First, I visit https://www.heroku.com, log in, and then create a simple app that does nothing. I only care that I can or can't push to this repository using
git from my local environment command line. I don't need the app to actually do anything on the web, and nobody will ever know that it exists.
$ cd $WORKSPACE_ROOT $ git init learn-pushing-to-heroku-without-ssh-keys $ cd learn-pushing-to-heroku-without-ssh-keys # I'll call this folder CHECK_PUSH_PROJECT_ROOT $ heroku apps:create try-pushing-without-ssh-keys $ git remote -v heroku https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git (fetch) heroku https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git (push)
I notice that, by default, Heroku adds the remote repository using secure HTTP Git transport, rather than SSH Git transport. This leads me to https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/git where I read (in the section https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/git#http-git-authentication) that with HTTP Git authentication, I can't use SSH keys, but rather only Heroku API keys for authentication. Good! This already matches what I think I want. In order to check that I understand this, pushing to this remote should already fail.
$ cd CHECK_PUSH_PROJECT_ROOT $ git commit --allow-empty -m "Test 1, pushing without SSH keys." $ git push heroku master Counting objects: 2, done. Writing objects: 100% (2/2), 186 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done. Total 2 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) remote: error: pathspec '.' did not match any file(s) known to git. remote: remote: ! Heroku Git error, please try again shortly. remote: ! See http://status.heroku.com for current Heroku platform status. remote: ! If the problem persists, please open a ticket remote: ! on https://help.heroku.com/tickets/new remote: ! and provide the Request ID [redacted] remote: To https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git ! [remote rejected] master -> master (pre-receive hook declined) error: failed to push some refs to 'https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git'
Hm. Good news: push failed; bad news: the error message describes a failure other than the one I'm expecting. I'd prefer a message that more directly points to the problem. This could mean that I encountered a transitory failure, so I try again, giving the same result. This makes it more likely that either I'm failing to push for the right reason with a terrible error message or Heroku happens to be having some problems right now. To rule out the second possibility, I check Heroku's status by visiting https://status.heroku.com/. The status report claims that everything is working, so if Heroku has a problem, then Heroku hasn't noticed yet. For the moment, then, I have to assume that my push is failing for the right reason, and now I need to learn how to specify my Heroku API key so that I have authorization to push to my Heroku repository. For this, I go back to reading https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/git#http-git-authentication.
This articles tells me that everything should "work transparently" from my local environment, because I have previously used
heroku login to establish my credentials with Heroku. I checked this by removing
heroku references from
$HOME/.netrc, trying to push from the command line, and seeing Heroku ask me for a password. In other words, as soon as I use
heroku login, Heroku considers me authenticated and lets me push from this environment. I don't want that, because I can't (and don't want to) type my Heroku password into a GitLab CI job in order to authenticate myself with Heroku. I need to know how to specify my Heroku API key some other way when pushing to Heroku. Sadly, the document I'm reading now doesn't tell me how to do that.
Fortunately, Stack Overflow gives me a clue. It tells me that I could try something like the following
$ git push https://heroku:$HEROKU_API_KEY@git.heroku.com/$HEROKU_APP_NAME.git master
In order to test this, I first try doing this even with my Heroku credentials present in
.netrc, to make sure that that works; and then I remove the Heroku credentials from
.netrc to check whether that also works.
$ git push "https://heroku:$(heroku auth:token)@git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git" master Counting objects: 2, done. Writing objects: 100% (2/2), 186 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done. Total 2 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) remote: error: pathspec '.' did not match any file(s) known to git. remote: remote: ! Heroku Git error, please try again shortly. remote: ! See http://status.heroku.com for current Heroku platform status. remote: ! If the problem persists, please open a ticket remote: ! on https://help.heroku.com/tickets/new remote: ! and provide the Request ID [redacted] remote: To https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git ! [remote rejected] master -> master (pre-receive hook declined) error: failed to push some refs to 'https://heroku:[my-heroku-api-key]@git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git'
Interesting! This tells me that the error message I saw probably has nothing to do with authentication, and that I need to fix that first.
Chasing A Rabbit
One thing leaps to my mind: I have no files in this repository, just an empty commit, and perhaps Heroku does something in its standard
pre-receive hook that assumes that there are file in the repository. I spend about 30 seconds searching the web looking for confirmation of this guess before trying to add files to the repository. I also conjecture that perhaps I need a minimally-viable Heroku app in order to pass Heroku's
pre-receive check, so I might need to create something like a valid
Procfile that just echoes "Hello, world!" to
stdout in order for Heroku to accept my push. Right now, I don't know the contract for Heroku to agree to accept my push. I need to reverse-engineer some aspect of it. Undocumented contracts kill.
I couldn't find anything definitive quickly, but from what I read, I infer that the error happens when Heroku tries to run
git checkout on the repository, so I try to mimic the conditions under which
git checkout would generate the error
error: pathspec '.' did not match any file(s) known to git.
$ cd $CHECK_PUSH_PROJECT_ROOT $ git checkout master # That works $ git checkout . error: pathspec '.' did not match any file(s) known to git. # Interesting! Does this always happen, or does this relate to not having any files? $ git checkout -b diagnose-git-pathspec-error Switched to a new branch 'diagnose-git-pathspec-error' $ touch i_need_a_file.txt $ git add -A $ git commit -m "I need a file to see what happens when I try to checkout the current directory." $ git checkout . # That works! $ git checkout master # There are no files on this branch. $ git checkout . error: pathspec '.' did not match any file(s) known to git. # Aha!
OK, so it seems that Heroku's
pre-receive hook assumes that there are files in the branch that we push to it. Good to know.
Don't get me wrong: "files exist on this branch" is a perfectly reasonable requirement in the contract for a module consuming a push from another Git repository; but it would be even nicer if either (1) the receiving repository didn't have this requirement or (2) the receiving repository produced a better message when someone violates the contract.
This feels similar to a function that accepts a collection, and then fails when it receives an empty collection, even though it could safely silently do nothing in that case. Worse, when that function fails with a generic "no such element" error.
Now I feel more confident that, if I add a file to this repository, then push, that the push will pass Heroku's
pre-receive hook and I'll more easily distinguish an authentication success from an authentication failure. Just for the sake of avoiding another rabbit-hole, I'll add a
Procfile that does nothing interesting.
# Procfile web: echo "Hello, world"
$ cd $CHECK_PUSH_PROJECT_ROOT $ git add -A $ git commit -m "Heroku won't accept a push unless the branch has files on it." $ git push "https://heroku:$(heroku auth:token)@git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git" master Counting objects: 5, done. Delta compression using up to 4 threads. Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done. Writing objects: 100% (5/5), 459 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done. Total 5 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) remote: Compressing source files... done. remote: Building source: remote: remote: ! No default language could be detected for this app. remote: HINT: This occurs when Heroku cannot detect the buildpack to use for this application automatically. remote: See https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/buildpacks remote: remote: ! Push failed remote: Verifying deploy.... remote: remote: ! Push rejected to try-pushing-without-ssh-keys. remote: To https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git ! [remote rejected] master -> master (pre-receive hook declined) error: failed to push some refs to 'https://heroku:[my-heroku-api-key]@git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git'
OK… I can live with this. Although Heroku rejects the app, it is clear enough to me for right now that authentication has succeeded—which I had as a goal—and I don't care enough to explore how to build a minimal Heroku app, which appears to involve at least specifying a buildpack. For now, I will interpret this result as "authentication passed", and as long as I can confidently interpret a result as having got past the authentication step, I won't push for a more obvious success response.
Now… where was I? Oh yes, we can push to Heroku using the API Key, as long as we also have the right Heroku credentials stored in the local environment, in this case, in the file
$HOME/.netrc from having previously successfully logged in to Heroku using the Heroku CLI tool. Now, let's weaken the assumption.
$ heroku logout Local credentials cleared. $ git push https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-without-ssh-keys.git master [Evidence that we connected, and so authentication passed.]
FAILED. I don't know whether this means that I somehow still magically have credentials stored locally (where?!) or that Heroku is remembering my previously-successful authentication. I can check the latter by destroying the Heroku app and creating a new one, then trying to push to the new Heroku app without the Heroku API key, and expecting authentication to fail.
$ heroku login [Enter credentials...] $ heroku apps:delete try-pushing-without-ssh-keys --confirm try-pushing-without-ssh-keys Destroying ⬢ try-pushing-without-ssh-keys (including all add-ons)... done $ heroku logout Local credentials cleared.
Now, just to be sure, I create the Heroku app on the web, so that I don't accidentally store my Heroku credentials locally. I created an app called
$ cd $CHECK_PUSH_PROJECT_ROOT $ git push https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-with-api-key.git master
…and that worked just fine, too. This leads me to conclude either that Heroku is remembering my authentication with the API key or that HTTPS Git transport lets me push without authentication. Now, it makes sense to me that, since HTTPS Git transport uses HTTP basic authentication, that there is some period during which Heroku's server remembers my authentication credentials, which normally helps me, but right now hurts me. Of course, I don't know this timeout period, so I have no idea how long to wait until I can try this again and get responses that I expect and can safely interpret. If I had to guess, I'd say 15 or 30 minutes, maybe 1 hour.
Annoying. I guess I have to wait for 2 hours, just to be sure that Heroku's server has forgot my credentials.
Well… let me check this. If I can push to this repository over HTTPS Git transport from the GitLab CI runner, then that changes the game on me, and I'd rather learn that now than wait 2 hours to run yet another inconclusive test.
Even better, before I go through all that, I probably only need to push to this Heroku repository from a different IP address, because Heroku wouldn't associate that client with my currently-cached credentials. I don't have to go through GitLab CI for this; I can use my Rackspace account, because that machine does not reside behind my home router.
$ ssh [my-rackspace-account-address] $ cd $WORKSPACE_ROOT $ git init try-pushing-to-heroku-from-somewhere-else $ cd try-pushing-to-heroku-from-somewhere-else $ git push https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-with-api-key.git master # Oops, there's probably not even a master branch yet. $ git branch # nothing $ git commit --allow-empty -m "Create me a master branch, please." *** Please tell me who you are. Run git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org" git config --global user.name "Your Name" to set your account's default identity. Omit --global to set the identity only in this repository. fatal: empty ident name (for <jbrains@quincy.(none)>) not allowed # Ugh! I'll add an identity just for this repository. $ git config user.email "email@example.com" $ git config user.name "J. B. Rainsberger" # Try again. $ git commit --allow-empty -m "Create me a master branch, please." # Done. $ git branch * master $ git push https://git.heroku.com/try-pushing-with-api-key.git master Username for 'https://git.heroku.com': [CTRL+C]
PASSED. Heroku's server correctly demanded a password, so it is almost certainly the case that Heroku has cached credentials related to my local environment, and I can't continue testing from my local environment until Heroku removes those credentials from its cache. However, I can use my Rackspace account to try pushing with the Heroku API key, since Heroku clearly isn't magically authenticating me some other way.
# Still logged in to my Rackspace account $ git push https://heroku:[my-heroku-api-key]@git.heroku.com/try-pushing-with-api-key.git master Counting objects: 2, done. Writing objects: 100% (2/2), 180 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done. Total 2 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) remote: error: pathspec '.' did not match any file(s) known to git. # ...and so on
PASSED. Authentication passed, even though Heroku rejected the push because it has no files.
The Thrilling Conclusion
In order to push to a Heroku Git repository with just the Heroku API key, do this:
$ cd $YOUR_PROJECT_ROOT $ git push https://heroku:$(HEROKU_API_KEY)@git.heroku.com/$(HEROKU_APP_NAME).git $(LOCAL_BRANCH_TO_PUSH)
Wonderful! I can easily do this. Now, in order to feel the feeling of completion, I want to try this right away!
Pushing To Heroku From GitLab CI
In order to make this work more nicely, I'd like Heroku to accept the push, which means delivering a minimal Heroku app. For this, I added the Ruby buildpack to my Heroku app and I created a
Procfile that ran a "Hello, world" app using Ruby.
# Procfile worker: bundle exec ruby -e "puts 'Hello, world.'"
If this fails, then at least I can try the same thing from my local microtesting environment, and then figure out how to make it run through GitLab CI. I have, however, become impatient for a final result, so I'll try running this directly in GitLab CI and hope for the best. This step either ends my learning or leads to taking a long break involving alcohol.
This time, however, I have to be careful, because Heroku wants me to push to the branch
master, but I've been using various branches for various tests, so I need to control the branch I'm on.
# .gitlab-ci.yml before_script: - git config user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org" - git config user.name "GitLab CI on behalf of J. B. Rainsberger" push_to_heroku: script: # I need to control which Git branch I'm on in order to push to Heroku - git checkout -b publish-to-heroku - git commit --allow-empty -m "Test pushing to Heroku at $(date)" - git branch -v - git push https://heroku:[my-heroku-api-key]@git.heroku.com/try-pushing-with-api-key.git publish-to-heroku:master
$ cd $PROJECT_ROOT $ git add -A $ git status -s M .gitlab-ci.yml A Procfile $ git commit -m "Test deploying a dead-simple Ruby app from GitLab CI to Heroku" $ git push --all gitlab $ open https://gitlab.com/jbrains/learn-gitlab-ci/pipelines?scope=running
Here is the contract of using GitLab CI to deploy to Heroku, as far as I can tell.
The GitLab CI build job has to control or detect which branch it's on in order to push the correct branch to Heroku as
- The build job has to push an app that Heroku can detect, build, and run. (Clearly.)
- The build job has to push to Heroku using the Heroku API key.
Before declaring victory, however, there remains the problem of hardcoding the Heroku API key in my GitLab CI configuration file. I will need to come back and read https://docs.gitlab.com/ce/ci/variables/README.html#secret-variables to learn more about that. For now, it's time for a break.
- Introduce secret variable for the Heroku API key.
- Introduce a "production" environment to make room for things like staging/preview/whatever.
Keeping the Heroku API Key Secret
According to the documentation at https://docs.gitlab.com/ce/ci/variables/README.html#secret-variables, I change a GitLab-project-level setting, listed under Settings > CI/CD Pipeline > Secret Variables. (I had to contribute to GitLab's documentation in order to clarify where to find that setting, since it had moved.) I introduced the Heroku API Key as a secret variable, then changed the GitLab CI configuration file accordingly.
# .gitlab-ci.yml before_script: - git config user.email "email@example.com" - git config user.name "GitLab CI on behalf of J. B. Rainsberger" push_to_heroku: script: # I need to control which Git branch I'm on in order to push to Heroku - git checkout -b publish-to-heroku - git commit --allow-empty -m "Test pushing to Heroku at $(date)" - git branch -v - git push --force https://heroku:$HEROKU_API_KEY@git.heroku.com/try-pushing-with-api-key.git publish-to-heroku:master
I should note that I also had to add
--force to my
git push command, because I'm not necessarily keeping my local repository synchronized with the Heroku app's repository.
I Think I Have All The Pieces
Now, I think I have all the pieces to do the thing that I wanted to do with GitLab CI in the first place. I think I'm ready to run an end-to-end test. For that, I need the following.
- A Jekyll project in my local development environment.
- A GitLab repository to act as the intermediary between development and production.
- A Heroku app able to run Jekyll as a Rack app, for which the Rack/Jekyll buildpack will come in handy.
Create A Local Jekyll Project
I chose a Jekyll theme arbitrarily, just for interest.
# In my local environment, which is my MacBook $ cd $WORKSPACE_ROOT $ git clone https://github.com/lukas-h/onepage.git try-deploy-jekyll-to-heroku-through-gitlab $ cd try-deploy-jekyll-to-heroku-through-gitlab # Does it work at all? # There's no Gemfile. Weird. Let's create one.
# Gemfile source "https://rubygems.org" ruby "2.3.3" gem "jekyll"
$ bundle install # Bundler easily installs gems. $ bundle exec jekyll serve # Open http://127.0.0.1:4000 in a browser # It works! $ git add -A $ git commit -m "We can now serve the Jekyll site."
Now that I've confirmed that the Jekyll app works, it's time to prepare it for deployment to Heroku, by making it a Rack app.
I visited http://adaoraul.github.io/rack-jekyll/ and followed the instructions: adding the gem and creating
# Gemfile source "https://rubygems.org" ruby "2.3.3" gem "jekyll" gem "rack-jekyll"
# config.ru require "rack/jekyll" run Rack::Jekyll.new
# _config.yml # skip a bunch of stuff... exclude: - LICENSE - README.md - vendor - Gemfile - Gemfile.lock - config.ru
# In the local environment $ bundle install # Bundler installs Rack/Jekyll # Does it work? $ bundle exec rackup # Open http://127.0.0.1:9292 in a browser # It works! $ git add -A $ git commit -m "We can now serve the Jekyll site as a Rack app"
Create a Heroku App
I visited https://www.heroku.com and created an app named
arbitrary-jekyll-site, to which I added the buildpack at https://github.com/heroku/heroku-buildpack-ruby.git. I visited https://arbitrary-jekyll-site.herokuapp.com/ to verify that the Heroku app works at all. Next, I verify that I can deploy to Heroku from my local environment.
# In the local environment $ export HEROKU_API_KEY=none-of-your-business $ git remote add production https://heroku:$HEROKU_API_KEY@git.heroku.com/arbitrary-jekyll-site.git $ git push production master # Open https://arbitrary-jekyll-site.herokuapp.com/ in a browser
Create a GitLab Project
I visited https://www.gitlab.com and created a GitLab project called
deploy-jekyll-to-heroku-using-gitlab-ci. I then added it as a remote to the Jekyll project in my local environment.
# In the local environment $ git remote add gitlab firstname.lastname@example.org:jbrains/deploy-jekyll-to-heroku-using-gitlab-ci.git # Let's see if this works at all! $ git push --all -u gitlab # Yay!
Set Up GitLab CI
First, I set up the secret variable representing the Heroku API key under the new GitLab project CI/CD pipeline.
Next, I can use that secret variable to configure GitLab CI.
# .gitlab-ci.yml before_script: - git config user.email "email@example.com" - git config user.name "GitLab CI on behalf of J. B. Rainsberger" push_to_heroku: variables: # I need to control which Git branch I'm on in order to push to Heroku publication_branch_name: "publish-to-heroku" script: - git checkout -b $publication_branch_name - git commit --allow-empty -m "Publish to Heroku at $(date)" - git push --force https://heroku:$HEROKU_API_KEY@git.heroku.com/arbitrary-jekyll-site.git $publication_branch_name:master
Next, I commit everything and push it to GitLab, then wait for the fireworks!
$ git add -A $ git commit -m "GitLab CI now deploys to Heroku." $ git push gitlab
Now I wait two minutes for the GitLab CI pipeline to finish its work. With any luck, we see evidence of a new Heroku deployment.
…and we do! I visit https://arbitrary-jekyll-site.herokuapp.com/ in my browser and see a web application.
Change The Jekyll Site, Change The Production Web Site
This remains the final end-to-end test before I declare victory.
# In the local environment $ mvim _posts/2017-02-13-hello-world.markdown
# _posts/2017-02-13-hello-world.markdown --- title: "Hello, World!" date: 2017-02-13 --- # Hello, World!
# In the local environment $ bundle exec jekyll serve # Open http://localhost:4000/ and check for the new post # I see it! [CTRL+C] $ git add -A $ git commit -m "Wrote a shiny new post." $ git push gitlab # Wait two minutes # Open https://arbitrary-jekyll-site.herokuapp.com/ and check for the new post # I see it!
Finally… it all works.
Clean Up Before Moving On
# In the local environment $ git remote rm production # ...because now GitLab does this for us $ git remote rm origin # ...because I don't intend to contribute back to the theme $ git remote -v gitlab firstname.lastname@example.org:jbrains/deploy-jekyll-to-heroku-using-gitlab-ci.git (fetch) gitlab email@example.com:jbrains/deploy-jekyll-to-heroku-using-gitlab-ci.git (push) # That's it!
I finish by removing the Heroku apps and GitLab projects that I no longer need. Now I can do this for real, and after I do it for real, then I can remove these test apps and projects. This document should suffice for recreating everything if I need to.
That was almost fun.